Everyone had heard of ancient Egypt or Greece: great philosophers, pyramids, pharaohs, sculptures, etc., but the peoples of these lands were far from the most ancient. History knows civilizations much older, and today we will tell about a dozen of them.
10.Phenicia (1200-332 BC)
Phenicia was an ancient civilization made up of independent city-states along the Mediterranean coastline, stretching across what is now Syria, Lebanon, and northern Israel. The Phoenicians were sailors: they were famous for their mighty ships, decorated with horse heads in honor of their god of the sea.
The island city of Tire and the city of Sidon were the most powerful states in Phenicia, while Gebal / Byblos and Baalbek were the most important in terms of religion and spirituality. Phoenician city-states began to take shape from 3200 BC. and have been firmly established c. 2750 BC Phenicia flourished from 1500-332 BC. and has been highly acclaimed for its craftsmanship in shipbuilding, glass making, dyeing and an impressive level of craftsmanship in luxury and consumer goods.
9.The Olmec civilization (1200-401 AD)
The mysterious Olmec civilization, located in ancient Mexico, flourished in pre-classical Mesoamerica since 1200 BC. and is considered the predecessor of all subsequent Mesoamerican cultures, including the Maya and Aztecs. With their central regions in the Gulf of Mexico (now the states of Veracruz and Tabasco), the Olmec influence and their trading activities have spread since 1200 BC, even reaching the territory of modern Nicaragua.
8.The Hittite civilization (1600-1178 BC)
The Hittites occupied the ancient region of Anatolia (also known as Asia Minor, present-day Turkey) until 1700 BC, and expanded their territory to an empire that rivaled Egypt.
They are repeatedly mentioned in the Jewish Tanakh as opponents of the Israelites and their god. According to Genesis 10, they were the descendants of Het, the son of Canaan, who was the son of Ham, born of Noah (Genesis 10: 1-6). Therefore, their name comes from the Bible and from the Egyptian letters of Amarna, which mentions the “Kingdom of Het”, designated today as “Kingdom of Hatti”, but they called themselves Nesili (nesili, kanesili).
7.Nubian civilization (2000-1000 BC)
Ancient Nubia stretched from the valley of the Middle and Upper Nile to the confluence of the White and Blue Nile rivers. Many cultures fought over the region, leading to dynamic trade relations, political upheavals and military conflicts. In Egyptian sources, Nubia is called Ta-Seti or “Land of the Bow”, which describes the experienced archers of the region.
According to archaeologists, Nubia originated as an agricultural region around 2000 BC. Excavations in over 75 villages and cemeteries in Nubia bear witness to a culture of agriculture, livestock and trade. By the end of the fourth millennium BC, a centralized state emerged in the country’s capital, Kustul, which controlled the trade routes between Egypt and the hinterland of Africa. This culture flourished until about 3000 BC, when the First Dynasty of Egyptian kings conquered the region.
6.Ancient Chinese Civilization (2070-500 AD)
The name “China” comes from the Sanskrit Kina (from the Chinese Qin Dynasty, pronounced “chin”), which was translated by the Persians as “Qin” and seems to have become popular thanks to the Silk Road trade from China to the rest of the world.
The Romans and Greeks knew the country as “Seres” – “the country where silk came from.” The name “China” does not appear in the west until 1516 AD. in Barbosa’s journals describing his travels to the east (although Europeans have long known about China through trade along the Silk Road). Marco Polo, the famous explorer who introduced China to Europe in the 13th century AD, called this land Katya.
5.Cretan-Minoan civilization (2600-1400 BC)
The Minoan civilization flourished on the island of Crete, located in the eastern Mediterranean from the village. 2000 BC With their unique art and architecture, as well as the dissemination of their ideas through contacts with other cultures in the Aegean Sea, the Minoans made a significant contribution to the development of the civilization of Western Europe. Palace complexes, colorful frescoes depicting taurocatapses and processions of people, delicate gold jewelry, graceful stone vases, and ceramics with bright patterns of marine life – these are the hallmarks of Minoan Crete.
4.Ancient Greece (3000-30 BC)
ancient Greece is home to Western philosophy (Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle), literature (Homer and Hesiod), mathematics (Pythagoras and Euclid), history (Herodotus), drama (Sophocles, Euripides, and Aristophanes), the Olympic Games, and democracy. The concept of an atomic universe was first laid out in Greece through the work of Democritus and Leucippus. The process of the modern scientific method was first introduced through the work of Thales Miletus and those who followed him. The Latin alphabet also comes from ancient Greece: it was introduced to this region during the Phoenician colonization in the 8th century BC. In general, the ancient Greeks around the world have something to say thank you for.
3.Civilization of Ancient Egypt (3100-332 BC)
To the ancient Egyptians themselves, their country was simply known as Kemet, which means “Black Earth”, named for the rich dark soil along the Nile River, where the first settlements began. The country was later known as Misr, which means “country,” a name that the Egyptians still use for their nation. Egypt has flourished for millennia as an independent nation with a culture renowned for tremendous achievements in all areas of human knowledge, from art to science, technology, and religion. The great monuments that Egypt is still famous for reflecting the depth and grandeur of Egyptian culture, which influenced many ancient civilizations, including Greece and Rome.
2.Indian civilization (3300-1300 BC)
The Indus Valley civilization was in what is now Pakistan and India, on the fertile floodplain of the Indus River and its environs. Evidence for religious practices in this area dates back to around 5500 BC. Rural settlements began around 4000 BC. and around 3000 BC. the first signs of urbanization appeared. By 2600 BC. dozens of cities were created, and between 2500 and 2000 BC. the Indus Valley civilization has reached its peak.
1.Ancient Mesopotamia (3500-500 BC)
Mesopotamia is known as the “cradle of civilization” due to two events that took place in the Sumer region in the 4th millennium BC:
The emergence of cities that have the most similarity to modern ones The invention of writing (although it is known that writing also developed in Egypt, the Indus Valley, China, and Mesoamerica) Unlike the more united civilizations of Egypt or Greece, Mesopotamia was a collection of diverse cultures, the only real bonds which were their gods and attitude towards women. For example, social customs, laws, and even the language of Akkad cannot be assumed to be in line with Babylonian, but women’s rights, the importance of literacy, and the pantheon of gods were indeed common throughout the region (although the gods had different names in different regions and periods). As a result, Mesopotamia should be considered a region that produced many empires and civilizations, rather than one civilization.